Engineers are challenged daily to come up with economical product designs that reduce weight, size, raw

Engineers are challenged daily to come up with economical product designs that reduce weight, size, raw materials and labor. This competitive mandate affects every design facet, including the fasteners needed to hold components in place. One style of non-threaded fastener that has been widely used to accomplish these goals is the retaining ring. A circular fastener, this ring is installed in a groove to hold components on a shaft or inside a bore. It holds gears, cams, and pulleys on shafts, and it keeps bearings, valves, nozzles and locks inside housings. Knowing which retaining ring to use in a given fastening situation can greatly contribute to the overall effectiveness and economy of a design. Just as a screw needs a correctly tapped hole, a retaining ring needs properly cut grooves to ensure the best performance. Both groove walls should be parallel and perpendicular to the axis of the shaft or housing. Groove depth should be held to specifications because the depth and the groove bottom radii determine the amount of support the load-bearing groove wall will provide. The edge margin, which is the distance of the groove from the end of the shaft or housing, must be calculate...

Corrosion resistance of duplex 2205 pipe is better than 304 stainless steel pipe, with good corrosion

Corrosion resistance of duplex 2205 pipe is better than 304 stainless steel pipe, with good corrosion resistance in the production of pulp and paper. Moreover, 316 stainless steel is also resistant to erosion by marine and aggressive industrial atmospheres. 316 stainless steel has good oxidation resistance in intermittent use below 1600 °C and continuous use below 1700 °C. In the range of 800-1575 degrees, it is preferable not to continuously apply 316 stainless steel, but when 316 stainless steel is continuously used outside this temperature range, the stainless steel has good heat resistance. 316L stainless steel has better carbide precipitation resistance than 316 stainless steel and can be used in the above temperature range. Annealing is carried out at a temperature ranging from 1850 to 2050 degrees, followed by rapid annealing and rapid cooling. 316 stainless steel cannot be hardened by heat treatment. 316 stainless steel has good welding properties. All standard welding methods can be used for welding. When welding, 316Cb, 316L or 309Cb stainless steel filler rods or welding rods can be used for welding according to the application. For best corrosion resistance, the weld...